Vol. 23, No 2, 2019 < Volumes
(ISSN 1428-6394)



hJanusz Zalewski and Andrew Kornecki Trends and challenges in the aviation systems safety and cybersecurity

Aviation systems are an essential component of every nation's critical infrastructure. Considering millions of passengers flying per year and busy airports, the safe and secure flight and traffic operation is of primary importance to the proper functioning of the society. This paper discusses fundamental problems of providing critical systems safety and cybersecurity in the aviation infrastructure including both airborne and ground systems such as avionics, navigation, air traffic control and management, as well as unmanned systems. It reviews the major challenges and current trends in providing viable solutions. Both industrial practices and research approaches are mentioned, including established methodologies and standards, as well as new developments in certification.


hMarcin Śliwiński, Kazimierz T. Kosmowski and Emilian Piesik Current issues of functional safety and cybersecurity analysis of industrial and critical infrastructures

This article addresses some functional safety assessment procedures with cybersecurity aspects in critical industrial installations with regard to the functional safety requirements specified in standards IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. The functional safety management includes hazard identification, risk analysis and assessment, specification of overall safety requirements and definition of safety functions. Based on the risk assessment results, the safety integrity level (SIL) is determined for consecutive safety functions. These functions are implemented within the industrial control system (ICS) andór the distributed control system (DCS) that consists of the basic process control system (BPCS) andór the safety instrumented system (SIS). The determination of the required SIL related to the required risk mitigation is based on the semi-quantitative evaluation method. Verification of the SIL for the considered architectures of the BPCS andór the SIS is supported by probabilistic models with appropriate data and model parameters including cybersecurity related aspects. The proposed approach is illustrated on the example of critical industrial installations.


hKazimierz T. Kosmowski, Marcin Śliwiński and Jan Piesik Integrated Funcional Safety and Cybersecurity. Analysis Method for Smart Manufacturing Systems

This article addresses integrated functional safety and cybersecurity analysis with regard to: the generic functional safety standard IEC 61508 and the cyber security standard IEC 62443 concerning an industrial automation and control system (IACS). The objective is to mitigate the vulnerability of information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) systems, and reduce relevant risks taking into account a set of fundamental requirements (FRs). A method is proposed for determining and verifying the performance level (PL) or the safety integrity level (SIL) of defined safety functions, and then validating these levels depending on the security level (SL) of a particular domain, e.g. a safety related control system (SRCS). The method is general in the sense that it is based on risk graphs prepared for individual risk andór societal/group risk with regard to the criteria defined.


hHenryk Krawczyk Service-Oriented Cyberspace for Improving Cybersecurity

The paper presents a cyberspace model where different categories of IT services are offered and used largely. A general cybersecurity policy is considered and the corresponding cybersecurity strategies are shown. The role of such technologies as: Internet of Things, Cloud Computing and Big Data is analyzed in order to improve the cybersecurity of a cyberspace. A new kind of service oriented cyberspace is proposed and its main properties are emphasized. Two simple examples of such cyberspaces are given and briefly discussed.


hMarek Górka Hate Speech — Causes and Consequences in Public Space

Due to the highly innovative technologies such as the smart phone, cyberbullying and on-line aggression have increasingly affected individuals across the world. Cyberbullying is defined as repeated unwanted, hurtful, harassing, and threatening interaction through electronic communication media. The anonymity and mobility afforded by the Internet has made harassment and expressions of hate effortless in a landscape that is abstract and beyond the realms of traditional law enforcement. Further, it argues that a broad coalition of government, schools, police and citizenry is likely to be most effective in reducing the harm caused by hate speech. The study discusses the targets of hate on the Internet, provides a framework within which problems can be identified and resolved by accentuating moral and social responsibility, and articulates possible solutions to combat this increasing problem.


hTomasz M. Komorowski and Tomasz Klasa Decision Support Methods in Cybersecurity Education

Even the best technology will be ineffective if not used appropriately, therefore education and training about cybersecurity principles and programs are essential components of any cybersecurity strategy. This article presents selected models of the decision support theory from the point of view of cybersecurity education. The analysis of scientific literature and the available research results serve as a base to characterize approaches to raise the awareness of decision-makers about potential cyber threats and the development of appropriate attitudes and the conscious use of information systems and digital resources. The main part of the article is devoted to the issue of the use of teaching methods to increase the involvement of learners. It also describes examples of selected models of the game theory used in IT security education, including examples of simulation games dedicated to decision-making in the domain of IT security.


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